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地球最深钻孔似地狱入口大国之间的地球钻探竞赛
2020-01-08 01:50   来源:  www.theaquino.com   评论:0 点击:

地球最深钻孔似地狱入口大国之间的地球钻探竞赛新浪科技讯北京时间1月6日消息,据国外媒体报道,在冷战期间

  新浪科技讯北京时间1月6日消息,据国外媒体报道,在冷战期间,美国和苏联都制定了雄心勃勃的钻探计划,试图穿过地壳,接近地球中心。

Sina science and technology news beijing time january 6, foreign media reported that during the cold war, the united states and the soviet union both developed ambitious drilling plans to cross the earth's crust, close to the center of the earth.

  湖泊、森林、雾气和积雪,在俄罗斯位于北极圈深处的科拉半岛上,一切看起来就像是童话故事里的场景。然而,在这片自然美景中,却矗立着一座苏联科学研究站的废墟。在这栋摇摇欲坠的建筑中间,混凝土地板上嵌着一个沉甸甸、锈迹斑斑的金属帽,由一圈同样锈迹斑斑的金属螺栓固定着。

The lakes, the forests, the fog and the snow, on Russia's Kora Peninsula, deep in the Arctic Circle, all look like a fairytale scene. In this natural beauty, however, stands the ruins of a Soviet scientific research station. In the middle of the ramshackle building, a heavy, rusty metal cap is embedded in the concrete floor, secured by a circle of equally rusty metal bolts.

  一些人说,这里是地狱的入口。这就是科拉超深钻孔(KolaSuperdeepBorehole),地球上最深的人造洞,也是到达地球最深处的人造物。这座建筑深达公里,以至于当地人发誓称,你可以听到在地狱里受刑的灵魂的尖叫声。苏联人花了将近20年的时间才钻到这么深的地方,但当这个项目在苏联解体后戛然而止时,钻头才钻到地壳到地幔距离的三分之一处。

Some say this is the entrance to hell. This is the Kola Super Deep Borehole, the deepest man-made hole on Earth, and the one that reaches the deepest part of the planet. The building is so deep that locals swear that you can hear the screams of the souls who have been tortured in hell. It took nearly 20 years for the Soviets to drill so deep, but only when the project came to an abrupt end after the collapse of the Soviet Union did the drill drill drill into a third of the earth's crust to the mantle.

  苏联的超深钻孔并非个例。冷战时期,超级大国之间展开了一场竞赛,都想要尽可能地深入地壳,甚至到达地幔。

Soviet ultra-deep drilling is not an example. During the Cold War, there was a race among the superpowers to get as far as possible into the earth's crust and even to the mantle.

  现在,日本人也想试一试。国际大陆科学钻探计划(ICDP)的乌利?哈姆斯说:“钻探开始的时间正好处于铁幕时代。”当时哈姆斯还是一位年轻的科学家,参与了德国的超深钻孔项目。“我们之间肯定存在竞争。其中一个主要的动机是,俄罗斯人并没有真正公开他们的数据,”哈姆斯说,“当俄罗斯人开始钻探时,他们声称发现了自由水——但大多数科学家根本不相信这一点。过去,西方科学家普遍认为,在地下5公里处,地壳密度非常大,水无法渗透到那里。”

Now, the Japanese also want to try. uly of the International Continental Science Drilling Program (ICDP)? \"The start of the drill is in the Iron Curtain era,\" Hams said. At the time, Hams was a young scientist involved in the ultra-deep drilling project in Germany. There must be competition between us. One of the main motivations is that the Russians didn't really disclose their data,\" said Hams,\" when the Russians started drilling, they claimed to have found free water - but most scientists simply didn't believe it. In the past, Western scientists have generally believed that the earth's crust is so dense that water cannot penetrate into it at five kilometres underground.

  “(新)项目的最终目标是获得目前活跃的地幔实际样品,”日本海洋研究开发机构的项目经理肖恩·托兹科说,“在阿曼这样的地方,你可以找到接近地表的地幔,但那是数百万年前的地幔。这就相当于活恐龙和恐龙骨骼化石的区别。”

The ultimate goal of the “( project is to get real samples of the current active mantle," says Sean Tozko, project manager at the Japan Institute for Ocean Research and Development." In places like Oman, you can find mantles that are close to the surface, but that's the mantle millions of years ago. This is the difference between living dinosaurs and fossilized dinosaur bones.

  如果将地球比作一个洋葱,那么地壳就像洋葱的薄皮,它只有40公里厚。地壳下方是2900公里深的地幔,再往下便是地球的中心——地核。

If the earth is compared to an onion, then the crust is like the thin skin of an onion, which is only 40 kilometers thick. Below the earth's crust is a 2,900-kilometer-deep mantle, and below is the earth's center, the core.

  就像太空竞赛一样,探索未知“深度边疆”的竞赛展示了工程能力和前沿技术,以及某种“正确的东西”。科学家们要前往从来没有人去过的地方。这些超深钻孔所能提供的岩石样本对科学的重要性,可能不亚于美国宇航员从月球上带回的任何东西。唯一的不同是,这次美国人没有赢得比赛。事实上,也没有人真正获胜。

Like the space race, the race to explore the unknown “deep frontier ” demonstrates engineering capabilities and cutting-edge technology, and something“ right ”. Scientists are going to places where no one has ever been. These ultra-deep boreholes can provide samples of rock that are as important to science as anything American astronauts bring back from the moon. The only difference is that this time the Americans didn't win the race. In fact, no one really wins.

  在探索“深度边疆”的竞赛中,美国进行了第一次预演。20世纪50年代末,美国百科学会提出了第一个深入研究地幔的严肃计划。这是一个非正式团体,由美国科学界的领军人物组成。他们将这一钻过地壳直达地幔的计划称为“莫霍计划”(ProjectMohole),以提出莫霍不连续面的克罗地亚地震学家安德里亚·莫霍罗维奇的名字命名。

In the competition to explore the \"deep frontier \", the United States conducted its first preview. In the late 1950s, the American Encyclopedia Society proposed the first serious plan to delve deeper into the mantle. This is an informal group of leading scientists in the United States. They referred to the plan, which drilled through the crust to reach the mantle, as the \"Project Mohole,\" to name the Croatian seismologist Andrea Mohorovic, who has been on Moho's discontinuous face.

  美国人并没有钻一个很深很深的洞,而是决定在墨西哥瓜达卢佩附近的太平洋海底进行钻探。在海底钻探的好处是那里的地壳比较薄,而缺点是地壳最薄的地方通常是海洋最深的地方。

Instead of drilling a deep hole, Americans decided to drill at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean near Guadalupe, Mexico. The advantage of drilling on the ocean floor is that the crust there is relatively thin, and the disadvantage is that the thinnest part of the crust is usually the deepest part of the ocean.

  苏联于1970年开始在北极圈进行钻探。1990年,德国大陆深层钻探计划(KTB)在巴伐利亚州启动,最终钻探深度达到9公里。

The Soviet Union began drilling in the Arctic Circle in 1970. In 1990, the Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) was launched in Bavaria, eventually reaching a depth of nine kilometers.

  与登月任务一样,超深钻探所需的技术必须从头开始摸索。1961年,当莫霍计划开始在海床上钻探时,石油和天然气的深海钻探还未出现。当时还没有发明出诸如动态定位等关键的技术。在石油深海钻探中,这种技术可以使钻探船停留在油井上方的位置。于是,工程师们不得不临时想办法。他们在钻探船的两侧安装了一套螺旋桨系统,使船在钻孔上方保持稳定。

As with the moon landing mission, the technology needed for ultra-deep drilling must be explored from scratch. Deep-sea drilling for oil and gas was yet to emerge in 1961 when Moho planned to start drilling on the seabed. Key technologies such as dynamic positioning were not yet invented. In deep-sea oil drilling, this technique allows the rig to remain above the well. So the engineers had to improvise. They installed a propeller system on either side of the drill boat to keep it stable above the drill hole.

  德国工程师面临的最大挑战之一,是如何钻一个尽可能垂直的洞。他们当时提出的解决方案,现在已成为世界油气田的标准技术。

One of the biggest challenges facing German engineers is how to drill a hole as vertical as possible. The solution they proposed at the time has now become the standard technology for the world's oil and gas fields.

  “根据俄罗斯人的经验,你必须尽可能垂直钻探,否则就会加大钻机的扭矩,造成孔内扭结,”乌利?哈姆斯说,“解决办法是开发垂直钻井系统。”现在这已经是一个行业标准,但它们最初是为大陆深层钻探计划开发的。该系统直到钻探深度达公里还能奏效,但在最后的至2公里,这个洞偏离了垂直线将近200米。

“According to the Russian experience, you have to drill as vertically as possible, or else you will increase the torque of the rig, causing the hole to kink," Ulley said. "The solution is to develop a vertical drilling system," Hams said. Now this is an industry standard, but they were originally developed for the continental deep drilling program. The system worked until drilling reached a depth of up to two kilometers, but in the last two kilometers the hole was nearly 200 meters off the vertical line.

  “上世纪90年代初或80年代末,当俄罗斯变得更加开放,并愿意与西方合作时,我们试图利用一些俄罗斯的技术,”哈姆斯补充道,“不幸的是,我们无法及时得到相关设备。”

“In the early 1990s or late 1980s, when Russia became more open and willing to cooperate with the West, we tried to use some Russian technology," Hams added." Unfortunately, we couldn't get the equipment in time."

  最终,所有这些探险都以某种程度的挫折告终。有的在起步时就遭遇阻碍,有的则是钻探机器在地下深处遭遇高温,加上成本和政治因素,所有这些都让科学家的梦想破灭。他们都想要钻得更深,并打破最深洞的记录。

In the end, all these expeditions ended in some degree of frustration. Scientists'dreams have been dashed by the difficulty of starting out, by the high temperatures of drilling machines deep underground, combined with cost and politics. They all want to drill deeper and break the record for the deepest hole.

  在尼尔·阿姆斯特朗登上月球的两年前,由于成本开始失控,美国国会取消了对莫霍计划的资助。科学家开采出来那几米厚的玄武岩,以今天的货币计算,大约花费了4000万美元。

Two years before Neil Armstrong landed on the moon, the U.S. Congress canceled funding for the Moho program as costs began to spiral out of control. Scientists have mined those meters of basalt, in today's currency, for about $40 million.

  接下来就轮到科拉超深钻孔了。1992年,当温度达到180摄氏度时,钻探停止了。这个温度是原先估计值的两倍,再往深处钻是不可能的。苏联解体后,再没有资金来资助这些项目;三年后,整个设施被关闭。如今,这个荒凉的地方成了喜欢冒险的游客的目的地。

And then it's Cora's turn to drill deep. In 1992, when the temperature reached 180 degrees Celsius, drilling stopped. This temperature is twice the original estimate, and it is impossible to drill deep again. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, there was no more money to fund these projects; three years later, the entire facility was shut down. Nowadays, this desolate place has become a destination for adventurous tourists.

  德国的超深钻孔没有像其他项目那样遭遇厄运。巨大的钻机仍然在那里,今天已成为旅游景点。这个地方实际上已经变成了地球的观测台,甚至是一个艺术画廊。

Germany's ultra-deep drilling has not been as bad as other projects. The huge rig is still there and today has become a tourist attraction. The place has actually become an observatory of the earth, even an art gallery.

  当荷兰艺术家洛蒂·吉文将带隔热罩的麦克风放入德国的超深钻孔时,麦克风接收到了一种低沉的隆隆声,科学家也无法做出解释。这种隆隆声让她“觉得自己非常渺小”。她说:“这是我生命中第一次看到这个我们赖以生存的大球活了过来,它的声音让人难以忘怀。有些人认为,这听起来就像地狱,也有人以为,他们听到的是地球的呼吸。”

When Dutch artist Lottie Given put the microphone with the heat shield into the ultra-deep drill hole in Germany, the microphone received a deep rumble that scientists couldn't explain. The rumble made her \"feel very small \". \"It's the first time in my life I've seen this big ball that we live on, and its voice is haunting,\" she said. Some people think it sounds like hell, and others think that what they hear is the breath of the earth.

  哈姆斯表示,当时德国的计划是比苏联钻得更深,但当时他们甚至还没有达到预期的10公里深度。“我们钻探的地方比俄国人的钻孔要热得多。很明显,要想再深入下去,难度要大得多,”他说,“当时正是20世纪90年代初的德国,没有很好的理由来筹集进一步推进计划的额外资金,因为德国的统一耗资太大了。”

Mr Hames said Germany's plan was to drill deeper than the Soviet Union, but at the time they hadn't even reached the expected 10-kilometer depth. \"We drill much hotter than the Russian drill. It's obviously a lot more difficult to go further,\" he said.\" It was in germany in the early 1990s that there was no good reason to raise extra money to go further, because german unification was too expensive.\"

  奔向地幔的竞赛似乎就是著名小说《地心之旅》的升级版,这种感觉很难摆脱。虽然科学家们并不期望找到一个藏有恐龙的洞穴,但他们确实把深度钻探的计划描述为“探险”。“我们认为这是一次探险,因为在准备和执行过程中确实花了一些时间,而且你真的要进入无人地带,那里从来没有人去过,这在今天看来真的很不寻常。”哈姆斯说,“你总会在那里发现一些让你感到惊讶的东西,尤其是当你深入地壳深处的时候。

The race to the mantle seems to be an up-to-date version of the famous novel Journey to the Earth, a feeling that is hard to shake off. While scientists don't expect to find a cave containing dinosaurs, they do describe the plan for deep drilling as an \"adventure.\" 'We think it's an adventure because it does take some time in preparation and execution and you're really going to go into no man's land, where no one's ever been, which looks really unusual today.' \"You always find something there that surprises you, especially when you go deep into the crust,\" Hams said.

  当我们谈论德国大陆深层钻探计划或科拉超深钻孔时,需要了解的一点是,这些计划背后的理论在钻探开始时已经有30至40年的历史了。

When we talk about deep drilling projects in the German mainland or ultra-deep drilling in the Kola, what needs to be understood is that the theory behind these plans was 30 to 40 years old when drilling began.

  这些任务的意义在于,它们就像是行星探索,它们是纯粹的科学事业,你永远不知道你会发现什么。在1256号孔[由深海钻探项目(DSDP)和海洋钻探项目(ODP)钻探的一个孔],我们第一次看到了完整的海洋地壳。以前没有人到过那里。这真的很令人兴奋,总是会有惊喜出现。

The significance of these missions is that they are like planetary exploration, they are purely scientific, and you never know what you will find. at hole 1256[ a hole drilled by the deep-sea drilling project (dsdp) and the ocean drilling project (odp)], we first saw the complete ocean crust. Nobody's been there before. It's really exciting and there's always surprises.

  今天,“从莫霍界面到地幔”(M2M-MoHoletoMantle)计划是国际海洋发现计划(IODP)最重要的组成部分之一。和最初的莫霍计划一样,科学家们计划在地壳只有6公里深的海床上钻孔。这个超深钻探项目将耗资10亿美元,其目标是在人类历史上首次获取原位的地幔岩石。达蒙?蒂格尔也参与了该项目,他说:“这将是一项了不起的任务,需要日本做出巨大承诺。”

Today, the M2M-MoHoretoMantle program is one of the most important components of the International Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP). Like the original Moho program, scientists plan to drill holes in the seabed, which is only six kilometers deep. The ultra-deep drilling project, which will cost $1 billion, aims to capture in situ mantle rocks for the first time in human history. Damon? \"It's going to be a great task and it's going to take a huge commitment from Japan,\" Mr. Tigel said.

  地球号(Chikyū)是日本建造的世界最大深海钻探船,建于大约20年前,排水量达到59500吨。利用全球定位系统系统和6架可调计算机控制的飞机,地球号可以使船体位置的变化幅度仅为50厘米。

The Chikyu, the world's largest deep-sea drill ship built by Japan, was built about 20 years ago with a displacement of 59,500 tons. Using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and six adjustable computer-controlled aircraft, the Earth can vary the hull position by only 50 cm.

  “我们的想法是,这艘船将接过火炬,继续50年前启动的莫霍计划,”日本海洋研究开发机构的肖恩·托兹科说,“超深钻孔在研究厚大陆地壳方面取得了很大进展,我们要做的是找出更多关于地壳-地幔边界的信息。

“The idea is that the ship will take the torch and continue with the Moho program, which started 50 years ago," says Sean Tozko of the Japan Institute for Ocean Research and Development.

  目前主要的难点在于如何选择钻探点,已有的三个候选站点分别位于哥斯达黎加海域、墨西哥巴哈海域和夏威夷。每一个钻井点都需要在海洋深度、与钻井点的距离以及是否需要在岸上建立基地之间做出妥协。“基础设施可以建设,但这需要时间和金钱,”托兹科补充道。

At present, the main difficulty lies in how to select the drill point, and the three existing candidate sites are located in Costa Rica, Baja, Mexico, and Hawaii. Each drilling point requires a compromise between the depth of the ocean, the distance from the drilling point, and the need to establish bases ashore. \"Infrastructure can be built, but it takes time and money,\" Tozko added.

  哈姆斯表示,超深钻探最终确实可以归结为一个成本问题,“这些探险活动非常昂贵,因此很难重复。它们的成本可能高达数亿欧元,其中只有一小部分将用于地球科学,其余部分将用于技术开发,当然还有维持运营。我们需要懂得鼓舞人心的政治家来宣扬这些探险的价值。”(任天)

Ultimately, says Mr Hams, ultra-deep drilling really boils down to a cost problem.\" These expeditions are so expensive that they are hard to repeat. They could cost hundreds of millions of euros, only a small portion of which will go to geoscience, the rest for technology development and, of course, maintenance. We need inspiring politicians to promote the value of these adventures. (any day)


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